What are the 14 grounds of discrimination? (2023)

Table of Contents

What are the 14 protected categories?

Protected Classes
  • Race.
  • Color.
  • Religion (includes religious dress and grooming practices)
  • Sex/gender (includes pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding and/ or related medical conditions)
  • Gender identity, gender expression.
  • Sexual orientation.
  • Marital status.

What are grounds for discrimination?

What is employment discrimination? Employment discrimination generally exists where an employer treats an applicant or employee less favorably merely because of a person's race, color, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, national origin, disability or status as a protected veteran.

What is Article 14 equal protection of law?

A) Article 14 1) the state shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex place of birth or any of term. B) Article 15 2) The state shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of laws within the territory of India.

What are the exceptions of Article 14?

The exceptions to the Right to Equality include Article 361, Article 361(A), Article 105, Article 194, and Article 31(c) of the Indian Constitution.

Does Article 14 permit a classification?

Its provisions have come up for discussion in the Supreme Court in a number of cases and the case of Ram Krishna Dalmia vs Justice S R Tendolkar reiterated its meaning and scope as follows. Article 14 permits classification, so long as it is 'reasonable', but forbids class legislation.

What are the 12 protected characteristics?

Protected characteristics

These are age, disability, gender reassignment, marriage and civil partnership, pregnancy and maternity, race, religion or belief, sex, and sexual orientation.

How many grounds of discrimination are there?

It is against the law to discriminate in employment against people on the basis of 14 “grounds” – age, ancestry, citizenship, colour, creed, disability, ethnic origin, family status, marital status, place of origin, race, record of offenses, sex, and sexual orientation.

What is needed to prove discrimination?

To make a claim for discrimination you must show that you suffered an adverse employment action, such as demotion, termination, or failure to hire, because you are a member of protected class, i.e. due to your age, sex, race, disability, religion, sexual orientation, familial status, and a few other classifications.

What are the 9 discriminatory grounds?

The Equal Status Acts 2000-2018 ('the Acts') prohibit discrimination in the provision of goods and services, accommodation and education. They cover the nine grounds of gender, marital status, family status, age disability, sexual orientation, race, religion, and membership of the Traveller community.

Who does the 14th Amendment protect?

Passed by the Senate on June 8, 1866, and ratified two years later, on July 9, 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment granted citizenship to all persons "born or naturalized in the United States," including formerly enslaved people, and provided all citizens with “equal protection under the laws,” extending the provisions of ...

What are the 3 clauses of the 14th Amendment?

The amendment's first section includes several clauses: the Citizenship Clause, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Due Process Clause, and Equal Protection Clause.

What is the 14th Amendment full?

No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

What does Article 14 of United Declaration of human rights states?

Everyone has the right to seek and to enjoy in other countries asylum from persecution. This right may not be invoked in the case of prosecutions genuinely arising from non-political crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

What is Article 14 called?

Equality before the law (Article 14)

This provision states that all citizens will be treated equally before the law. The law of the country protects everybody equally.

Can Article 14 be suspended?

(c) The right guaranteed by this Article shall not be suspended except as otherwise provided for by the Constitution.

What are 3 examples of discrimination?

Types of Discrimination
  • Age Discrimination.
  • Disability Discrimination.
  • Sexual Orientation.
  • Status as a Parent.
  • Religious Discrimination.
  • National Origin.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Sexual Harassment.

Which act sets out your human rights?

Public authorities must follow the Human Rights Act. They must respect and protect your human rights, unless there's a law which prevents it. The Human Rights Act says they must act in a way which is compatible your human rights.

What are some examples of indirect discrimination?

For example, if you're Jewish and observe the Sabbath, you can't work on Saturdays. It doesn't matter that there aren't any other Jewish people who work in the same shop. It can still be indirect discrimination if something would normally disadvantage people sharing your characteristic.

What are the 17 grounds of discrimination?

The grounds are: citizenship, race, place of origin, ethnic origin, colour, ancestry, disability, age, creed, sex/pregnancy, family status, marital status, sexual orientation, gender identity, gender expression, receipt of public assistance (in housing) and record of offences (in employment).

What is the 80% rule in discrimination?

What is the 80% Rule? The 80% rule was created to help companies determine if they have been unwittingly discriminatory in their hiring process. The rule states that companies should be hiring protected groups at a rate that is at least 80% of that of white men.

Is discrimination hard to prove?

Proving employment discrimination can often be difficult because evidence of discrimination tends to be hard to come by. However, there are a few ways wronged employees can make their claims in court and get their case in front of a jury.

What is the most common form of discrimination?

The most prevalent forms of discrimination in the workplace seen today are race and national origin. Discrimination based on national origin occurs when a business is opened by persons of one nationality who then discriminate in their hiring practices by only hiring other persons of their own nationality.

What are the five prohibited grounds of discrimination?

These grounds include primarily the grounds of colour, ethnic origin, ancestry, place of origin, citizenship and creed (religion).

What are the 5 key acts that protect against discrimination?

The laws protecting diversity in the workplace in Queensland and New South Wales include:
  • the Age Discrimination Act 2004;
  • the Disability Discrimination Act 1992;
  • the Racial Discrimination Act 1975;
  • the Sex Discrimination Act 1984;
  • the Fair Work Act 2009;
  • the Anti-Discrimination Act 1977 (NSW); and.

What are the protected grounds?

Protected grounds are:
  • Age.
  • Ancestry, colour, race.
  • Citizenship.
  • Ethnic origin.
  • Place of origin.
  • Creed.
  • Disability.
  • Family status.

What are the 7 forms of discrimination?

It is against the law to discriminate against anyone because of:
  • age.
  • gender reassignment.
  • being married or in a civil partnership.
  • being pregnant or on maternity leave.
  • disability.
  • race including colour, nationality, ethnic or national origin.
  • religion or belief.
  • sex.

Who does the 6th Amendment protect?

The Sixth Amendment guarantees the rights of criminal defendants, including the right to a public trial without unnecessary delay, the right to a lawyer, the right to an impartial jury, and the right to know who your accusers are and the nature of the charges and evidence against you.

What is Section 5 of the Fourteenth Amendment?

Section 5. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.

What is the 12th Amendment?

The new electoral process was first used for the 1804 election. Each presidential election since has been conducted under the terms of the Twelfth Amendment. The Twelfth Amendment stipulates that each elector must cast distinct votes for president and vice president, instead of two votes for president.

What violates the 14th Amendment?

The 14th Amendment granted U.S. citizenship to former slaves and contained three new limits on state power: a state shall not violate a citizen's privileges or immunities; shall not deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of law; and must guarantee all persons equal protection of the laws.

How has the 14th Amendment been violated?

Regardless of the “equality” of facilities, the Court ruled that separate is inherently unequal. Thus public school segregation based on race was found in violation of the 14th Amendment's Equal Protection Clause.

What is the 24th Amendment say?

The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or ...

What does Section 3 of the 14th Amendment mean?

Section 3 of the 14th Amendment was ratified shortly after the Civil War to prevent military officers, federal officers, and state officials who served in the Confederacy from serving in any future public office unless a supermajority of each chamber of Congress voted to allow such service.

Why is the 14th Amendment important today?

The principle that everyone born in this country is a United States citizen is one of the sacred building blocks of our democracy. Enshrined in the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution, it reflects America's fundamental commitment to fairness.

What is Section 2 of the 14th Amendment?

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed.

What are the list of protected classes in the US?

Applicants, employees and former employees are protected from employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex (including pregnancy, sexual orientation, or gender identity), national origin, age (40 or older), disability and genetic information (including family medical history).

What are the protected classes under the Constitution?

What are the protected classes? Under federal law, employers cannot discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, or disability. The law is not, however, a blanket bar on employers taking into account a person's membership in one of these groups in all circumstances.

How many different protected categories are there?

According to federal law, especially since the enactment of the Civil Rights Act in 1964, there are 10 classes or categories of people that are legally protected from discrimination.

What races are considered protected class?

Everyone is protected from race and color discrimination. Whites, Blacks, Asians, Latinos, Arabs, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, persons of more than one race, and all other persons, whatever their race, color, or ethnicity.

What is a protected class under federal law?

What Are Protected Classes in California? Federal law prohibits discrimination based on race, color, national origin, religion, sex, age, or disability. Race discrimination and discrimination based on color have been illegal since 1866.

What rights are most protected in the US?

The five freedoms it protects: speech, religion, press, assembly, and the right to petition the government. Together, these five guaranteed freedoms make the people of the United States of America the freest in the world.

What are examples of non protected classes?

For example, groups that are not considered protected classes include:
  • Education Level;
  • Economic Class;
  • Social Membership;
  • Illegal or Undocumented Aliens;
  • People with Criminal Records.
Jun 28, 2019

Who is protected by civil rights?

The Civil Rights Division of the U.S. Department of Justice is responsible for enforcing Federal statutes that prohibit discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, disability, and religion.

What classes were protected by the Civil Rights Act 1964?

In 1964, Congress passed Public Law 88-352 (78 Stat. 241). The Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex or national origin.

What are civil vs legal rights?

Civil liberties are freedoms guaranteed to us by the Constitution to protect us from tyranny (think: our freedom of speech), while civil rights are the legal rights that protect individuals from discrimination (think: employment discrimination). You have the right to remain silent.

What is the most common complaint brought to the EEOC?


Which of the following protects individuals from discrimination?

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, as amended, protects employees and job applicants from employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex and national origin.

What are the 7 personal characteristics that are protected by the Fair Housing Act?

In the Sale and Rental of Housing:

It is illegal discrimination to take any of the following actions because of race, color, religion, sex (including gender identity and sexual orientation), disability, familial status, or national origin: Refuse to rent or sell housing.

What is the most common type of harassment?

Sexual Harassment

The harassment in the workplace is sexual and consists of unwanted sexual advances, conduct, behavior, etc. It is the most common type of workplace harassment.

What are examples of a hostile environment?

A few examples of behavior that could create a hostile work environment include:
  • Repeated comments or jokes about a protected characteristic (e.g., race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity)
  • Displaying offensive symbols or pictures.
  • Threatening or intimidating behavior.
  • Physical assaults or unwanted touching.
Jun 29, 2022

What is quid pro quo harassment?

In most cases, quid pro quo sexual harassment occurs when a supervisor seeks sexual favors from a worker in return for some type of job benefit — such as a raise, better hours, promotion, etc. — or to avoid some type of detriment like a pay cut, demotion, poor performance review, etc.

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